A Comprehensive Comparison of VPNs and Onion Routing (TOR)

Marc Dahan

By Marc Dahan . 15 January 2022

Cybersecurity Journalist

Miklos Zoltan

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In this guide you will learn about:

  • What VPNs are and how they work
  • How a VPN keeps your internet traffic private
  • What TOR is and how it works
  • How TOR can ensure both privacy AND anonymity.
  • VPN vs TOR: Differences and similarities
  • Use cases for VPNs and TOR

Virtual Private Networks (VPN) and The Onion Router (Tor) have a lot in common. Both VPNs and Tor encrypt and proxy your traffic before sending it off to its ultimate destination. And both Tor and a VPN will hide your real IP address and, hence, your location from the sites and services you access online. So both make you harder to identify and track.

But despite these similarities, VPNs and Tor are different beasts with different purposes. This post will look at what VPNs and Tor are, how they work, and when you should use one over the other.

Let’s start with VPNs


What is a VPN?

A VPN is a server that sits between your device (computer, tablet, smartphone) and the internet. From your device, you initiate an encrypted connection to the VPN server. Once you’re connected, all of your traffic goes through the VPN server, encrypted, and then gets decrypted before going out to the requested website or service.

This is how a VPN works:

VPN Overview

Because your connection to the VPN server is encrypted, third parties (including your ISP) cannot know what you’re doing online. Your ISP will see that you’re using a VPN because you initiated the connection from your ISP’s network. But once the connection is made, the encryption cuts it out of the loop.

While it’s possible to detect VPN traffic and many websites, such as Netflix, detect and block VPNs, there are ways to make the VPN connection more resilient to blocking by switching protocols, ports or by using obfuscating proxies. Some VPN providers, though not all, offer some of these options to their users.

A VPN also replaces your ISP-provided IP address with the IP address of the VPN server to which you’re connected. So any websites you access will only see the VPN server IP address, and the site will consider you as being in the server’s location even though you may well be thousands of miles away in reality.

Further reading: Beginner’s Guide to VPN – A comprehensive and complete guide to everything there is to know about VPNs.

The VPN trust model

The VPN Trust Model

The trust model, with VPNs, is essentially all or nothing. You need to fully trust your VPN provider because you’re sending all of your internet traffic through its servers. Your VPN provider has the technical ability to log everything you do. VPNs are a centralized service. That means that there is one party that holds all of the keys and hence, one point of failure or compromise. The trust model is an important distinguishing feature between VPNs and Tor.

Choosing a reputable VPN provider and taking the time to read its privacy policy in general and its logging policy, in particular, becomes crucial. Pick the wrong VPN provider, and you could be worse off than simply using your ISP connection. Free VPNs are not recommended, as they tend to log and sell your data, defeating the purpose of using a VPN in the first place.

A good VPN provider will have a clearly written privacy policy and will put forth a robust no-logging policy. Ultimately, you’ll still have to take them at their word. But you can at least make an informed decision.

Using a VPN

To use a VPN, you’re going to need a VPN client. That’s usually going to be an application produced by the VPN provider you signed up to. It could also be a third-party client, but this is becoming less frequent.

Native VPN clients (VPN client apps produced by the VPN provider) are typically very easy to use, and many simply require you to press a large “Connect” button to initiate a connection, as in the image below (from ExpressVPN).

ExpressVPN Mobile View

Once you’re connected to a VPN server (using a native or a third-party client), all of your traffic, from your WhatsApp messages to the websites you browse, is sent through the VPN server. The VPN connection is applied system-wide.

What is Tor?

Tor stands for The Onion Router. In a nutshell, Tor is a large network of proxy servers (nodes or relays) operated by volunteers worldwide. When you use Tor, your traffic leaves your device and makes an encrypted connection to a Tor node. From there, it gets bounced around several other random Tor nodes worldwide (usually between 4 and 6) before being decrypted by the last node in the chain and sent to its ultimate destination. Your traffic is encrypted at each hop so that no single Tor node can tie together the request’s source, content, and destination.

This is how TOR works:

TOR Overview

Like with a VPN, the encryption keeps your ISP and third parties from snooping on your activities. However, your ISP and any websites you visit will know that you’re using Tor. The list of Tor exit nodes (last-hop Tor nodes, right before going out to the open internet) is public. Hence Tor traffic can easily be identified and even blocked.

The above issue can be mitigated by using Tor Bridges. Bridges are non-public nodes that can be used to connect to Tor even if your ISP is blocking access to known Tor nodes. Websites that block Tor connection wouldn’t identify the non-public nodes as being from the Tor network. However, using Bridges is not something you can just easily set and forget. And configuring Tor to use Bridges is beyond the scope of this article. Just be aware that there is a workaround if your ISP blocks Tor.

Using Tor will also replace your IP address with the IP address of the Tor exit node, just like a VPN. So let’s say you’re in the US and your Tor exit node is in France; websites you connect to will see a French IP address and assume you’re located in France.

Tor also allows you to access what is referred to as the Dark Web. The Dark Web consists of a network of websites that are not accessible outside of the Tor network (i.e., over the regular internet). These sites, only accessible through Tor, have a .onion top-level domain (TLD). Much of the Dark Web hosts black markets and is used for criminal activities, but it’s also used for a host of legal purposes.

Further reading: Complete Beginner’s Guide to Tor

The Tor trust model

The TOR Trust Model

So far, VPNs and Tor seem to be practically the same thing, except Tor bounces your traffic across multiple servers, while a VPN typically (though not always) bounces it over just a single server. While there’s more to it than that, the trust model is a big distinguishing factor.

With VPNs above, we stated that the trust model was all or nothing. VPNs are centralized services, and the VPN provider can see all of your traffic. If you don’t trust your VPN provider, don’t connect to its network.

Tor has a significantly different trust model. Tor is distributed; it is a decentralized service. What that means is that nobody owns the Tor network, not a corporation, not an individual. It’s run by thousands of volunteers around the world. There’s no central point to which all Tor users’ traffic converge. There’s no centralized operator to trust. You just need to trust the code.

When using Tor, every time you visit a different website, your connection is routed through a new, random sequence of Tor nodes. Now, while it’s possible that an exit node—the last Tor node in the sequence—could read the unencrypted traffic that passes through it, it couldn’t identify its source. You would still remain anonymous.

Using Tor

The easiest way to use Tor is to download and install the Tor browser. It is a modified version of Firefox that is configured to connect to the Tor network out of the box. It also has things like JavaScript and WebRTC disabled for enhanced privacy and anonymity. The Tor Browser also won’t store your browsing history, won’t run any scripts, and will automatically delete your cookies when closed.

TOR Browser

There are other ways to use Tor, such as configuring it on your router or using the TAILS operating system, but these are far from straightforward and beyond this post’s scope. With the Tor browser, all you need to do to connect to the Tor network is to launch it.

There are a few things to bear in mind when using the Tor browser. First of all, only your browser traffic will be going through the Tor network. Anything you do outside of the Tor browser will continue to use your ISP connection.

Second, because Tor bounces your traffic across multiple nodes for each request your device sends, this adds a significant amount of latency to your connection. In other words, Tor will noticeably slow down your connection. Tor favors security and anonymity over speed and performance.

It’s also not advisable to download files using the Tor browser, as doing so may compromise your anonymity by making connections outside the Tor network.

Privacy vs. Anonymity

We looked at the similarities and the differences between Tor and VPNs. And there’s some overlap between the two, for sure. However, in usage, VPNs are more about privacy, while Tor is more about anonymity. Privacy hides what you do, while anonymity hides who you are.

When you sign-up for a VPN, the VPN provider typically knows who you are. Odds are you paid with a credit card. And while some VPN providers accept anonymous cash payments or cryptocurrencies, the overwhelming majority of users pay with a credit card. So, youwhat you do should remain private – your connection is encrypted, and the provider doesn’t keep logs.

If the VPN provider is served a data request from a legal authority, it would be obliged to comply. However, it couldn’t hand over data that it never had in the first place, such as your browsing history. But your payment information, tied to your identity, may well be handed over.

VPNs enhance your privacy; they don’t render you anonymous – especially if you log into any of your online accounts while on VPN…

Tor, on the other hand, has no owner or centralized server. Tor is a distributed network of nodes operated by volunteers. There is no sign-up, there is no payment, there is no need to supply any identifying information at all. Simply download it, install it, and start using it.

That, coupled with the fact that your traffic is encrypted and bounced between four to six random locations before being sent to its ultimate destination, makes it extremely difficult to correlate a Tor connection to an individual user. As long as you follow certain guidelines (like not signing-into any of your online accounts), Tor can render you anonymous online.

To ensure full anonymity, it’s recommended never to to log into any online account tied to you while connected to the Tor network. This defeats the purpose of anonymity, as your Tor session can then potentially be tied to your identity.

When to use a VPN?

You’ll be better off using a VPN in the following situations:

To bypass censorship: If you reside in a country in which the internet is heavily censored, using a VPN can help you bypass those blocks. You might need to try multiple servers until you find one that works, but a VPN is typically more successful at this than Tor because Tor is more easily blocked.

To bypass region blocks: Many streaming sites – like Netflix – restrict access to some of their media based on geolocation. French content is only available to users in France; German content is only accessible to users in Germany, etc. A VPN allows you to spoof your location and hence can bypass geo-restrictions.

On public WiFI: You never know who else is using the same public WiFi as you are. And public WiFi is typically implemented with weak security, and many public WiFi access points are outright open and unsecured networks. Using a VPN while on public WiFi will protect you from hackers without slowing down your connection too much.

To prevent ISP throttling: Some ISPs privilege certain types of traffic on their network. They achieve this by throttling other types of traffic, typically P2P traffic and video streams. A VPN hides your traffic from your ISP. If your ISP doesn’t know what type of traffic you’re generating, it can’t throttle it either.

To bypass restrictive firewalls: Some organizations (schools, businesses) block access to certain online content over their networks. Using a VPN may bypass these blocks by running over common ports such as 53 (DNS) or 443 (HTTPS) or by using other obfuscation measures. Such networks would very likely block Tor connections.

Torrenting: P2P file-sharing can be risky, so masking your IP address makes sense. A VPN will achieve this while providing you with much better speeds than if you were using Tor.

When to use Tor?

When to Use TOR

Tor would be recommended to achieve the following:

Browsing the Web anonymously: As mentioned above, there is no sign-up process to use Tor. So your identity is not part of the equation. And the fact that your traffic is bounced over multiple locations makes it almost impossible to identify an individual Tor user.

However, make sure you don’t log into any of your personal accounts while using Tor, or you’ll be de-anonymizing yourself.

Accessing the Dark Web: Tor is the only way to access the Dark Web. A VPN won’t get you there.

High-stakes private communication: Tor is a great tool for untraceable communication. Remember above when we mentioned that despite Tor’s association to criminal activity, it was also used for many legal and legitimate purposes? People like journalists, whistleblowers, activists, dissidents, and crime victims can use Tor to communicate safely and anonymously without being tracked or leaving any traces behind. In certain cases, this can be a life and death matter. So Tor is indeed a valuable tool.

Can you use Tor and a VPN at the same time?

Actually, yes, you can. Nothing is stopping you from doing that. As long as you’re using a high-quality, trustworthy VPN provider, it will be a very secure setup. Simply connect to your VPN first and then launch the Tor browser. Just be aware that doing that will severely slow down your internet speed. So be prepared to make that tradeoff.

If you want to use a VPN together with Tor, it’s recommended to buy a VPN that allows payment with cash or cryptocurrencies. You should also use a “burner” email address not used for anything else – ProtonVPN and ProtonMail are good choices for both cases.


So there you go. Both VPNs and Tor are valuable tools to keep your digital life in your control. There clearly is some overlap between the two technologies. However, depending on what you want to achieve online, you should choose one over the other. Hopefully, this post will help you make more informed decisions about which tool to use and when.

Stay safe.

1 Comment

  • Rodango Xiang

    August 24, 2021 9:57 pm

    The problem with Tor is that it is likely “inundated” at every level with government or private sector exploitation.

    It would be foolish to assume that anything less than a very substantial subset of the backbone server infrastructure is operated by governments (or private contractor cutouts) whose motivations are to unmask or at least monitor traffic and map the network

    Not all such parties are US or even Western govt affiliated (China may very well have the greatest vested interest in this)

    Additionally, ongoing open source development of the software is competing with a comparatively much greater effort to exploit or even sabotage the code by comparison to other critical open source projects (like Linux).

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