What is port forwarding? Well, in simple terms, it’s forwarding internet data from one port to another. And when do you need it? When you need to allow incoming connections from a WAN (internet) to reach a specific device/port on a LAN (a private network).
Let’s break this down a little further…
When you connect to the internet, you use a public IP given by an ISP to the router.
Your computer, which is connected to the router, has a private IP address that can’t be used to connect to the internet.
So, your computer has to communicate through the router when connecting to the internet. The router fetches the data from the internet and forwards that data to the local device.
Your computer receives this data for certain processes or functions. Each one has an identification number called a port. There are around 65,000 ports. (A popular port is 443 for HTTPS traffic.)
The port number is added to the end of the device’s IP number to send and receive data. This port is also considered when your computer receives data from the internet. That’s why this process is called port forwarding.
VPN port forwarding is also very similar to the above process. The VPN will be an interface between your computer and the internet without allowing you to directly connect to the internet.
A popular use of VPN port forwarding is to bypass the NAT firewall. Some VPN services use a NAT firewall to protect customers from malicious internet connections. Although it keeps you secure, a NAT firewall can also block incoming connections you actually want.
If a VPN offers port forwarding, it can be used to reroute incoming connections so that they bypass its NAT firewall. If you use port forwarding when torrenting, you can access resources that would otherwise be blocked by the VPN server.
Real-World Uses of Port Forwarding
There are many real-world scenarios where port forwarding is extremely useful to everyday activities. Some are listed below:
Checking on your baby from the office via a baby monitor at home
Watching security camera footage when you’re away from home
Allowing users to connect to a public web server you’re hosting
Accessing your home computer through remote desktop software
Forming a direct connection to a gaming server
Connecting to an IoT device controlled at your home network
Maintaining uninterrupted direct access to a VoIP call server
Accessing services on a Synology NAS or a Plex
Recovering lost router passwords
Accessing restricted websites
Enhancing security protection against any DDoS attacks
Setting up servers, like TeamViewer, at home
Step-By-Step Guide to Set Up Port Forwarding with a Wi-Fi Router
For port forwarding, you generally need a Wi-Fi router. This process may vary depending on what brand of router you use, but the basic steps should be similar.
First, connect to the router and navigate to the admin panel. Usually, you can do this by entering 192.168.0.1 or 192.168.1.1 as the URL of your browser’s address bar.
After you log in, you’ll see an interface similar to this:
Open the port forwarding settings panel. Its location may be different, depending on the router model and firmware you use. For a ZTE router, you’ll find it under the Application Tab as “Port Forwarding.”
Enter the private IP address of the device connected to the WAN.
Choose a port from 1,000–65,000 and enter its internal and external port numbers. Both ports don’t necessarily need to match; the devices just need to recognize each port and use the relevant port when initiating the connection.
Enter the private IP address of the device you need to forward the messages (that are received from the internet).
Select the port number of the LAN-connected device that you need to forward the traffic to.
After adding the configuration, your interface will appear as follows:
Finally, you can edit an already added configuration however you like.
Great! Now you can now access your home network device. Just use the public IP address of your router integrating with the relevant port. To find your public IP address, enter “What is my IP” on the Google search bar.
To put things into perspective, here’s how such a request would look like. Let’s assume that your router’s IP address is 987.654.321, and you want to connect to your laptop on port number 4444. The request your router would receive through the port-forwarding protocol would look like this: 987.654.321:4444. That’s your router’s IP address with the extension of the port number at the end.
Port Forwarding with VPN
The second approach to port forwarding is through a VPN. This may help you access your VPN server through the internet. Some VPN providers have features that allow you to implement port forwarding and choose which port you want to use, configuring its use at the same time.
Not all users may find port forwarding with VPN useful, but it’ll certainly come in handy in certain situations:
Accessing the home network remotely.
Boosting server and home network security. Advanced users can use this feature to set up secure servers and home networks. For example, if you’re a business owner, you can use this feature to allow employees to connect to different servers. They set up port forwarding via VPN, preventing anyone from accessing those servers without a VPN. Now, you can say goodbye to intruders.
Torrent seeding. Allowing other users to connect to your torrent client and download files is called seeding. With a VPN and port forwarding, you can speed things along.
Step-By-Step Guide to Set Up Port Forwarding with VPN
Follow these easy instructions to set up port forwarding with PureVPN. Please note that these steps, too, may vary depending on your VPN software.
Log in to PureVPN.
Go to the PureVPN app settings and navigate to the “Port Forwarding” tab.
Choose any desired option from the settings:
Open all ports. This option opens all ports, and you can transfer any data to any desired port.
Block all ports. This option blocks all ports, and it prevents all internet traffic from the VPN connection from passing through.
Block all ports but enable specific. Use this option to open specific ports while blocking all others.
Apply the settings.
If you’re using any other VPN, complete the first two steps and then enter the following, depending on the type of VPN protocol you have:
Local Port – 1723
Protocol – TCP
Port – 47
Protocol – Other
Local Port – 500
Protocol – UDP
Port – 4500
Protocol – UDP
Local Port – 1194
Protocol – UDP
Port – 500
Protocol – UDP
Now you can set up a VPN connection on a remote computer using your VPN server’s public IP.
Note that not all VPN providers are comfortable providing the port-forwarding facility, as opening a port means potentially generating a hole in your security. Certain providers, like SurfShark and NordVPN, think the increased security is worth the trade-off, but some users might find it inconvenient when port forwarding is prohibited.
You can use port forwarding with the PureVPN add-on. This eliminates most of the security risks that come with opening a port to the digital frontiers out there.
Benefits of Port Forwarding and PureVPN Synchronization
Privacy and Security
Advanced users can use port forwarding to better protect their public IP address and strengthen privacy without letting unauthorized persons enter the network.
A dedicated IP address
Many organizations prefer to use the same IP address when conducting business online.
Some organizations may want several dedicated IPs for their different servers. For example, they may want one for development, and another for QA purposes.
Pros and Cons of Port Forwarding
Wi-Fi router port forwarding is quite easy to configure in that the only requirements are a device’s IP address and a port to listen.
Almost every router allows you to create multiple rules, even for the same device.
A user can be directed to his or her home network without requiring a password.
This works well with DNS.
It would be easy for hackers and other intruders to enter the opened ports and break into your private network.
Rules must be set for every device.
To add or modify rules, several site visits would have to be completed.
Port configuration is fairly simple, requiring only some user information.
Three security levels are available:
First level. Only a single port is available with a username and password protection.
Second level. Encryption allows for all traffic incoming and outgoing from the private network.
Third level. The security of the internal devices can be enhanced with password protection.
You can authorize access to all the devices regardless of rules created or not.
This also works well with DNS.
Many operating systems vote for most of the popular VPNs out there without additional client software.
You can increase the connection speed as the VPN port forwarding bypasses the NAT firewall.
More steps are required to connect to the internal servers. First, the user needs to log in to the VPN connection, and then to the server.
This requires complex usernames and passwords, which users can forget easily.
The encryption process may take more time.
Some VPN connections require separate software.
Types of Port Forwarding
Three common types of port forwarding include Local, Remote, and Dynamic port forwarding.
Local Port Forwarding
Local port forwarding lets users connect from their local computers to another server, or forward data and information securely from a client application running on the same computer as a Secure Shell (SSH) client.
This protocol undergoes all its operations at the SSH level, allowing any application running from this server-side to access services on the SSH’s client-side. Tunneling schemes and procedures use this method of port forwarding to achieve the same goal.
This can be used to bypass firewalls that block certain webpages.
Remote Port Forwarding
Remote port forwarding allows applications on the server-side of an SSH Connection to access services on the client-side of SSH. Besides SSH, proprietary tunnelling schemas use remote port forwarding.
Basically, this form of port forwarding allows users to connect from the server-side of an SSH or tunnel to a remote network service located at the client-side of the tunnel.
Remote port forwarding lets other devices access applications in remote servers.
Initiating remote desktop sessions is a general use of remote port forwarding. You can accomplish this through SSH, with port number 5900 and the IP address of the destination device.
An organization’s remote worker hosts an FTP server at his or her place. To provide access to this server to other employees, he or she can initiate remote port forwarding via SSH on the organization’s internal devices.
Dynamic Port Forwarding
This protocol gives you access to all the information and services on the other side of a NAT firewall by exploiting a firewall pinhole. This method allows your client to connect safely to a secure server that acts as a middle-man, sending and receiving data to one or more destination servers.
Static vs. Dynamic Port Forwarding
As the names suggest, static ports don’t change, and dynamic ports are prone to change each time a new connection is made.
If you’re port forwarding on a router, static ports are more convenient than dynamic ones, as you wouldn’t have to modify the port setting in your software regularly.
Some VPNs permit the opening of static ports that don’t change.
Dynamic port forwarding is more common with users, as it’s easier to implement. This lets providers recycle unused ports and reassign them.
It’s best not to use dynamically assigned ports in torrenting and remote access.
Port Forwarding and Torrenting
Torrent sharing, which is the file-sharing P2P protocol, is based on seeding and peering.
Incoming connections allow all other torrent users to connect to your BitTorrent client and download bits and pieces from a certain file.
The NAT firewall at the VPN router prevents other people from initiating unsolicited new connections. Once the firewall is established, other incoming connections are permitted, but this slows down the torrenting and seeding process.
When a BitTorrent user wants to download a file or pieces of it from you, his or her client will ask for permission to initiate a connection with you. The system will get a notification, as the NAT firewall doesn’t permit this.
Once you accept the request, the client can bypass the NAT firewall and create the connection successfully.
However, this process is impossible to continue with if both users have a NAT firewall implemented.
To use VPNs when torrenting, you need a workaround method to handle the NAT firewall.
A NAT firewall may stop incoming connections, but with port forwarding, you can let some of those connections be established and increase the downloading speed.
Risks of Port Forwarding
You might think of port forwarding as a cool way to do your work remotely. But despite its benefits, it’s not without its risks.
It may allow unsolicited connections to reach your home network. This may include potential hackers and other unauthorized connections.
Let’s look at this objectively using a real-world scenario. Imagine you’re showcasing an exhibition at your private institution. One of the halls is dedicated to this exhibit, and many scholars outside your institution are invited to visit it. Basically, you’ve opened your private institution’s doors to outsiders.
This may still sound fine, as the outsiders would presumably be interested only in your exhibit’s hall. But what if one or more malevolent intruders disguise themselves as scholars and enter the institution? What’s to stop them from trying to access the protected facilities given the opportunity?
Similarly, if you’ve set port forwarding with your camera without taking the necessary protective measures — such as using a strong password — intruders can easily gain access to your network. They may even be able to control the camera footage rather than watch it.
If you’ve allowed remote access to your PC at home, make sure you close the relevant ports once that access is no longer necessary. Otherwise, leaving those ports open for longer than necessary would be a welcome invitation to eager hackers or those with malicious intent. They’d jump at the chance to gain control over your device.
Therefore, it’s vital that you use strong passwords to protect devices you’ve exposed to port forwarding.
The risk level may vary depending on what purpose you’ve used port forwarding for, and what applications you’ve allowed listening to those open ports. This is why many VPNs don’t facilitate port forwarding.
Port Fail Attacks
VPNs that facilitate port forwarding are vulnerable to port fail attacks. What happens here is that an attacker (who’s enabled port forwarding) can expose the real IP addresses of other users’ devices even if the victims haven’t enabled port forwarding. Even though many VPN providers fail, they can prevent these kinds of attacks by setting up different incoming and outgoing IP addresses on its servers.
If you’re considering port forwarding, it’s important that you know the benefits and the risks it poses inside out. With port forwarding, accessing your home network is much easier than before. Although some VPN providers don’t support port forwarding because of concerns about its security issues, solutions have been put forward to implement security patches that override the native weakness of opened ports.
Shanika Wickramasinghe is a software engineer by profession. She works for WSO2, one of the leading open-source software companies in the world. One of the biggest projects she has worked on is building the WSO2 identity server which has helped her gain insight on security issues. She is keen to share her knowledge and considers writing as the best medium to do so. Cybersecurity is one of her favorite topics to write about.
Being a graduate in Information Technology, she has gained expertise in Cybersecurity, Python, and Web Development. She is passionate about everything she does, but apart from her busy schedule she always finds time to travel and enjoy nature.